PRK vs. LASIK Eye Surgery: What’s the Difference?

PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) is a type of refractive surgery to correct myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. It was the first surgery developed for vision correction and came before the popular LASIK procedure. PRK works by reshaping the cornea using an excimer laser. It’s similar to LASIK in that they both use lasers during treatment; however, PRK surgery takes slightly longer to recover from. PRK’s are still commonly performed and, in some cases, offer advantages over LASIK eye surgery.  

Both LASIK and PRK work by reshaping the cornea using an excimer laser, allowing light to enter the eye to focus on the retina for clear vision. The main difference between PRK and LASIK is the first step of the procedure. During PRK, the thin layer of the cornea (epithelium) is removed before reshaping the underlying corneal tissue with an excimer laser. The epithelium regenerates itself (grows back over the cornea) within a few days after surgery. With LASIK, a thin flap is created on the cornea using a microkeratome or a femtosecond laser. The flap is lifted to expose the underlying corneal tissue and is replaced after the cornea is reshaped with an excimer laser. 

LASEK (with an e) is essentially another version of PRK; however, this procedure entails removing the outer layer of the epithelial layer of the cornea. As with PRK, LASEK involves lifting the epithelial layer by using a trephine, a type of surgical instrument. The epithelial layer is preserved during surgery and then placed back on the eye’s surface once the procedure is complete. LASEK has decreased in popularity due to the slower recovery of vision compared with PRK. The epithelial layer that is placed back on the eye takes longer to recover in LASEK than the growth of a new layer as in PRK. 

After Surgery: 

Outcomes of PRK and LASIK are very similar. Many people can achieve 20/20 vision once they have had the procedure, and almost all patients achieve a 20/40 visual acuity or better. After PRK and LASIK surgery, complications are rare but can occur. Complications can include infection and starbursts or halos around lights at night. Reading glasses may also still be required after PRK surgery once you reach your 40s, due to an age-related loss of near vision called presbyopia. 

When it comes to corrective vision, LASIK is by far the most popular option for the majority. However, it’s essential to follow the guidance and judgment of your eye surgeon regarding whether PRK or LASIK is the best option for your individual needs. 

Thin Cornea Treatment Options

The human eye is an amazing organ comprised of fifteen parts, all working together so we can experience vision. Over time, our eyes start to age showing signs of lost efficiency of various functionalities. One of the main parts of the eye, the cornea, is a fascinating piece of tissue. It is comprised of five layers, all of which are designed to be optically transparent. 

The cornea provides a surface for the tear film, the layer of moisture with multiple functions, to cling to. Light is bent by the greatest degree when passing through these structures so it can be focused on point with the retina. The crystalline lens accounts for the remaining third of refractive power. 

Refractive issues appear when the power of these anatomical components – the cornea and crystalline lens is not well coordinated with the physical length of the eyeball. In hyperopia (long-sightedness), the eyeball is too short for its refractive power, and in myopia (short-sightedness), it is too long. 

Common surgeries such as LASIK and PRK have addressed this imbalance of refractive power to eyeball length by reshaping the cornea. Thin corneas can be treated with refractive procedures, and treatment suitability is also subject to other eligibility criteria such as pre-existing corneal disease and even lifestyle factors. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate candidates for each type of procedure.

The minimum corneal thickness required for refractive surgery is dependent on the degree of refractive error that needs to be corrected. The higher the refractive error, the higher the prescription required, and usually, the more tissue that needs to be removed. 

LASIK procedures require the creation of a flap of corneal tissue and, for those with thin corneas, make it challenging for reshaping. PRK surgery solves this issue by removing the very top layer, known as the epithelium, which leaves the rest of the corneal matter available for sculpting by laser. However, there are still requirements for patients considering PRK surgery, and sometimes other options must be considered that do not involve a laser to reshape the cornea. 

Some options include intraocular contact lenses, or implantable contact lenses (ICL). These lenses are artificial and are made of biosynthetic material that goes between the iris and the crystalline lens. However, not everyone may benefit from these lenses, and LASIK or PRK treatments may be more suitable to those who could benefit from a more permanent solution. 

Read the full article here

Bionic Eyes, Lenses, & Mechanical Eye Implants – The Future Technology in Eyesight

There are nearly 40 million people who have blindness and another 124 million who have low vision problems. With so many afflicted with vision issues, it’s no wonder why innovators have been long pursuing ways to restore or even augment natural eyesight into a higher-performing, more efficient, or even super-human vision. This would only be accomplished with the development of a so-call bionic eye or bionic eye implants. 

The goal of bionic eye scientists is to develop technology that’s as effective for people with little to poor vision as cochlear implants have become for those who have hearing difficulties. However, bionic eye technology is still in its infancy when compared to audio implant technology for hearing disabilities. 

Bionic Eyes are Different than Prosthetic Eyes

A bionic eye is not the same as a prosthetic eye. Prosthetic eyes sometimes called “glass eyes,” replace the physical structure and appearance of an eye that has been removed because of an accident, disease, or traumatic event.

Bionic eyes are mechanical and computational devices meant to give vision to the brain acting as a surrogate eye. Bionic eye implants, however, work on the existing eye structure to help augment vision in the damaged or impaired eye. Bionic implants are designed to achieve vision functionality over aesthetics and cosmetic reasons.

Currently, retinal implants are the only approved available bionic eyes. However, cornea transplants and cataract surgery can replace the cornea and lens if these structures are clouded or are incapable of focusing light for other reasons. 

Limitations of Bionic Eyes

Although specific bionic eye systems enable people to discern light, movement, and shapes, this technology is still limited and cannot restore sight 100%. This is mainly because the current implant has only 60 electrodes, to mimic the sight of a human eye, you would need about a million electrodes. 

The Future of Bionic Eyes

Researchers are trying to add more functionalities by increasing the number of electrodes to produce a higher quality of eyesight within bionic devices. Future implants will most likely feature a more functional vision for people who are blind. It also may be possible that bionic eyes can produce some degree of color vision. The key to higher quality vision within bionic eyes is a device that bypasses the retina and stimulates the brain directly. Read more about bionic eyesight here.

Improving Your Vision after Cataract Surgery

Often, as a person continues to get older, health conditions may begin to show, including cataracts. This eye condition can affect more than half the population over the age of 80. The common reasons why cataracts develop are smoking, high blood sugar, large amounts of sun exposure, eye injuries, or retina surgery. 

No matter the cause, the typical symptoms will be blurry/cloudy vision. In some cases, a stronger prescription for eyeglasses can be a short-term solution; however, the best treatment available is laser eye surgery. This article describes the differences between artificial lens types that can be customized to your vision needs, helping you see better after cataract surgery.   

To answer your personal questions about cataract surgery, schedule a consultation with your trusted Lasik surgeon today!

What to Expect Before, During, and After LASIK Surgery

LASIK is the most common laser eye surgery to treat myopia (near-sightedness), hyperopia (far-sightedness), and astigmatism. If you are tired of wearing contacts or glasses, a simple consultation with a Lasik surgeon can determine if you are the right candidate for Lasik surgery. If, after an evaluation, it is determined that LASIK is not a good fit for you, know that there are other vision correction surgeries such as LASEK, PRK, and Phakic IOL surgery as possible options too.  

In this article, we discuss the process a patient can experience before, during, and after LASIK surgery. Any detailed questions you may have should always be left for your trained medical professional to answer.

Before Surgery

Before receiving LASIK surgery, a comprehensive eye exam is needed to ensure that your eyes are healthy enough to move forward with the procedure. It is recommended to stop wearing contact lenses a few weeks before the eye exam and surgery since most can change the shape of the cornea. Patients should wear their eyeglasses instead.

During the exam, your doctor will look at the cornel shape, thickness, pupil size, refractive errors, and other eye conditions. This is a great time to bring up any questions or concerns that your doctor may be able to answer.

If everything goes well during the exam and you’re comfortable with the next steps, it is time to prepare for surgery. Your doctor should ask you to stop using products such as creams, lotions, makeup, or perfumes since these items can cause a higher risk for infection during and after surgery. It is also important to arrange transportation to and from surgery.

During Surgery

For many, surgery is the most dreaded part. However, there is no need to fear, as it is painless and should take less than 30 minutes. Just before surgery, the patient will recline back to rest in a comfortable position. Next, numbing drops are placed into the eyes. The area around the eye will be cleaned and a lid speculum (a device that holds the eyelids open) will be used.

You will be asked to focus on a special fixation light while the surgeon activates a precision instrument electronically to cut a flap in the cornea. The laser treatment is then performed to reshape the cornea using techniques that vary depending on the type of refractive errors. The corneal flap is then repositioned, allowing for the eye to heal.

Post-Op Instructions

Once the surgery has been completed, the first sensation you may feel is itching or burning; however, this is only temporary discomfort and will resolve soon. A brief examination will be performed shortly after the procedure, and subsequently, you will be sent home, accompanied by your appointed driver.

Your vision may seem blurry or hazy at first, and you may feel that you want to rub or itch your eyes. You mustn’t touch your eyes during this recovery time as they are healing. Rubbing your eyes could cause the flap to dislodge, which could require further treatments. A shield is recommended to place over your eyes for protection from additional elements and light sensitivity.

A follow-up appointment with your doctor will be scheduled 24 to 48 hours after the initial surgery. Subsequent check-ups will also be planned throughout the next six months.

Rohr Eye & Laser Center offers the most advanced technology available to suit your lifestyle and visual needs.  As a leader in laser vision correction and cataract surgery, our goal is to help you achieve the best vision possible without glasses or contact lenses.  More information can be found online at

Precision LASIK Surgery with Biomechanical Analysis

Laser eye surgery has been a procedure that thousands of patients have undergone for the last 25 years to improve their vision. As with most cutting-edge technologies, laser eye surgery continues to make breakthroughs within the field of ophthalmology. According to this article, Dr. Dupps, who is a professor of ophthalmology at Cole Eye Institute, believes there is a precision gap in refractive surgery planning. He points out the fact that refractive surgery such as LASIK, PRK, SMILE, and others are all currently retrospective, which is based on historical outcomes as opposed to having a treatment plan personally customized with a patient’s individualized data. Using clinical lab studies, Dr. Dupps and Abhijit Sinha Roy, Ph.D., have determined that biomechanical assessment is imperative for better detecting the risk of ectasia and increasing the efforts to personalize refractive treatments. Their studies have also been able to show individual variations in corneal stiffness affected during LASIK.

What to Think About Before LASIK

After tons of research and consideration, you may have finally decided that LASIK eye surgery could be the right choice for your eyes. Before jumping on board, however, there are a few things that you should consider. Here are five tips that you should keep in mind when thinking about LASIK eye surgery:

  1. Choosing the right surgeon. There are many doctors available, so it’s essential to find the one with the right skills and experience. Also, trust and reputation are significant factors, so try to find a referral from a friend or family member.
  2. Follow pre-surgery instructions. Your surgeon will provide you with a list of must do’s and don’ts the day before the procedure.
  3. Recovery time. LASIK surgery will not require extended recovery (approx. 4 to 8hrs). Most people can drive, go back to work, and live their daily lives, as usual, the very next day.
  4. Post-Op. Once the surgery is complete, your LASIK surgeon will ask that you go home and rest after the procedure. You can develop severe eye irritation if you don’t sleep and rest your eyes after LASIK surgery. So, be sure to get plenty of shut-eye!
  5. Do NOTS after surgery! Patients are asked not to rub their eyes, wear makeup, or have the ceiling fan turned on directly after surgery.

Tips on Keeping Your Eyes Healthy

There are many things we can do to keep our eyes healthy and maintain good vision as we age. This article goes over a few tips on ways to keep your eyes in good health and vision lasting for years to come.

  • Eat Well

Maintaining a proper diet and taking the right vitamins have a big impact on your eyes and vision. Nutrients like omega-3 fatty acids, lutein, zinc, and vitamins C and E could help lessen the chance for getting macular degeneration and cataracts. Vegetables that are green and leafy such as spinach, kale, and collards, should be a part of your diet if you are serious about your eye health.

  • Stop Smoking

Smokers have a higher likelihood of getting cataracts, developing optic nerve damage, and macular degeneration. If you are a chronic smoker and have not had eye issues yet, consider yourself lucky. The faster you can kick the habit, the higher the chance you won’t develop eye issues.

  • Wear Sunglasses

Constantly exposing your eyes to ultraviolet (UV) rays can increase your chances of developing cataracts and macular degeneration. If you live in a sunny climate with higher UV exposure, wearing sunglasses every time you go outside or are in the car can drastically lessen the chances of developing eye problems. Useful tip: Choose a pair that blocks 99% to 100% of UVA and UVB rays.

  • Limit Eye Exposure to Computer Screens

We all live in a world where we are constantly looking at computer screens. However, too much exposure to digital screens can be damaging to our eyes and vision. The problems that can develop from staring at computer screens too long are eyestrain, blurry vision, trouble focusing, dry eyes, and headaches. To protect your eyes, make sure to take regular breaks from your computer or phone. Readjusting your eyes every 20 minutes by looking at least 20 feet away for 20 seconds will have a huge impact on your vision, focus, and minimize the chances of developing headaches and other eye-related issues.

  • Visit Your Eye Doctor and Get Exams Regularly

We all should be regularly visiting our eye doctors and receiving regular eye exams to check for any abnormalities that could be developing with your eyes or vision. Eye exams can find diseases like glaucoma and determine if you are developing any eye or vision issues. 

The Truth About Cataracts

According to the World Health Organization, cataracts are one of the leading eye health issues that can cause blindness, affecting roughly 65.2 million people worldwide. Cataracts are relatively simple to treat surgically in developed countries, but in others, eye care is minimal. The increase in our life expectancy has also uninhibited the growth of cataracts in the human population.  What is a cataract exactly? This condition is described as the clouding of the lens in the eye. Vision becomes blurred as the cataract develops and eventually, blindness is the result. Unfortunately, there is no definite route to prevent cataracts, but there are several ways to lower the risk of obtaining it. If you feel your vision is starting to worsen, or if you have trouble being able to see without bright light, you should consult with your doctor and be tested for cataracts.

Risk Factors of Cataracts  

Biological aging is the most common cause for cataracts with environmental exposures such as smoke or ultraviolet light. There are other secondary conditions related to other health problems like skin disease, diabetes, and overall health and lifestyle habits. Research also shows that women are at a higher risk for cataracts than men. Experts believe the reason for this is due to menopause, causing a decrease in estrogen that triggers cataracts later in life. Another genetic factor appears to be race. Most people falling suspectable to cataracts after turning 70 are classified as ‘white’ while Hispanics seem to have the lowest rate for cataracts.

Lifestyle Habits and Protection from Cataracts

Although you cannot completely remove the risks of environmental exposure, there are specific measures that you can take to help protect you. The two most common causes include excessive sun exposure and smoking. Ultraviolet light and smoking are known for causing cataracts even in people at a young age. Unfortunately, the overexposure from UV rays can take years or even decades to contribute to cataract development, so many people may not even know there is a problem until the damage has already occurred. To reduce the exposure of UV rays, it is advised to wear the correct protection, for instance, sunglasses with at least 99% protection from UVA and UVB rays or wearing a sunhat with at least 3” wide brim whenever out in the bright sun. Evidence also suggests that having a proper diet may also prevent cataracts from developing. Foods that are high in antioxidants such as green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, and eggs may decrease your risk.


Cataracts can be very devastating if left untreated. The good news is that they take years to develop, which gives you plenty of time to discuss with your doctor which option will be best for your treatment. Cataract surgery is done in two stages; first, they remove the existing lens, and then they replace it with a new lens implant that will allow you to see clearly again and sometimes correct other vision problems. Your doctor can monitor early progression treatment and you may have months or years before surgery is needed. A simple upgrade in your glass’s prescription or the use of brighter lights can help, but ultimately the removal of the cloudy lens through cataract surgery will need to be performed.

Rohr Eye & Laser Center offers the most advanced technology available to suit your lifestyle and visual needs. As a leader in laser vision correction and cataract surgery, our goal is to help you achieve the best vision possible without glasses or contact lenses. More information can be found online at

Post-Op Cataract Hypertension

The most common adverse effect seen on day one of post-op cataract surgery that may require some form of treatment is ocular hypertension. It is essential to understand when and how to treat this condition to avoid a rare but serious complication of optic nerve damage and vision loss. Either inflammation typically causes this condition, or the ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) used during surgery to keep the eye shape has left a small remainder of the gel on the ocular. Experts have come to the consensus that if the pressure is higher than 30 mm Hg, the patient should be treated. Also, if a patient has preexisting glaucoma or is currently experiencing eye pain, then they too should be helped. In this article, it goes into detail on how this condition can be treated. It is always best to consult with your doctor for any concerns after surgery.